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为培肥改良黑土、提高黑土生产力而长期定位研究超高产土壤培育

2021-09-15

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由于风蚀、水蚀等,黑土层越来越薄;由于只用地不养地,土壤颗粒越来越细;由于忽视有机肥等有机物料的施用,地力越来越瘠薄,即是越来越瘦;土壤颗粒变细加之大动力、大体重机器的广泛使用,土壤变得越来越硬,作物根系难以伸展,难以吸收深层次的土壤水分与养分,大风、渍涝年份玉米倒伏严重,导致单产低,效益低。

黑土是“晴天硬邦邦,雨天不渗汤”,这是农民对变硬了的黑土地的形象描述。耕层变浅,耕层与心土层间养分、水分输通“中梗阻”,降雨时地表水不能下渗,即呈“涝象” ;日晒时地下水分无法上行补墒,即呈“旱象”

要想玉米高产优质高效,必须得有高产的土壤,因此培肥土壤是实现高产的前提。土壤基础肥力对玉米产量影响很大,约有65%以上的产量由土壤提供,肥料的增产作用一般只占35%左右,且产量水平越高对土壤肥力的依赖性越高。美国玉米带和欧洲多瑙河玉米带的玉米能够持续高产稳产很重要原因是土壤有机质含量高达3%-5%,而吉林省梨树县小宽镇的草甸黑土区土壤有机质含量在2%以下。为了藏粮于技、藏粮于地,建立玉米超高产土壤培肥理论,培育出超高产土壤并实现超高产,国人的饭碗装着我国自己的粮食,中国科学院沈阳应用生态研究所研究员、威尼斯0907线路检测总农艺师孙毅从2013年起就在吉林省梨树县小宽镇开展了“梨树县草甸黑土区玉米超高产土壤培育长期定位试验”。

试验包括以下几项内容:

1. 不同类型的有机肥及其不同用量对土壤的培肥改良作用

2. 玉米秸秆不同用量对土壤的培肥改良作用

3. 化肥不同配方与用量对土壤的培肥改良作用

4. 深松在培肥改土上的作用。

经过9年的试验研究,取得了理想的培肥改土作用,尤其以施用有机肥的培肥改土作用最明显,增产幅度最大。

今年是长期定位试验的第10个年头,7月2日田间调查发现:施用有机肥与否、高中低量化肥处理之间,玉米长势差异均极其显著;不同秸秆还田量之间、深松与否之间玉米长势差异也均显著。

相信再经过几年的试验研究,定会建立草甸黑土区玉米超高产土壤培肥理论,为玉米培育出超高产土壤。

左侧为没施用有机肥玉米,右侧为施用有机肥微区玉米。

从左至右3个微区分别是化肥高量、中量、低量,低量玉米长势最差。

这里是占位文字

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